This tutorial by Mr H will show you how to animate a simple 2D line drawing figure. I this case it is an animated iPod shaped character which will perform a simple short dance. The tutorial is a little short of 30 minutes long. You should watch the start of the tutorial and then pause the video to give you an opportunity to complete the steps completed on the tutorial. It may take you about 1 hour to complete a short animation such as this one as long as you stay focused and follow the steps presented.
For those of you who are more confident with Adobe Animate, you may be able to add additional elements to the short animation such as colour or a simple background layer.
Be sure to save your work as you go along and when complete.
More advanced tutorial
How to use layers inside a symbol in order to create a very basic animated character.
Professor Michael Steffen
Cinematographers usually refer to six basic shots. They are defined by the distance of the object from the camera and therefore how much of the object is in the frame.
Extreme long shot or establishing shot – This shot still contains a fair amount of landscape and helps to establish the location and likely atmosphere of that part of the film. It is very often used at the beginning of the film. For example, a view of the Australian landscape or Sydney Harbour.
Long shot – This shot still contains a fair amount of landscape or background though figures in the scene are recognisable as being human and male or female.
Full shot – This shot contains much less landscape or background but it does contain the whole height of any figure in the frame. If there are two figures in the frame it is called a two-shot, if there are three, a three shot.
Medium shot (mid-shot) – In a medium shot there is less background and figures in the frame are only seen from waist up. This too can be called a two-shot, three-shot etc depending on the number of figures.
Close up shot – A close up contains almost no background but focuses on the whole of an object or a person’s face
Extreme close up – An extreme close up focuses on an aspect of an object in great detail or a person’s face. For example, part of the design of a chair, the headline in a magazine or someones eye.
Humanipulation refers to the process of taking images of living or deceased people and manipulating them using digital techniques. With recent advances made in the area of computer animation a whole new world of special effects for the entertainment industry is available to film makers. Dead presidents shake hands with living actors, dead actors come back to life to complete performances, and digital renditions of living and dead celebrities are given lives of their own inside the computer. We are now able to re-creating actors who have retired or died, and giving them starring roles in new movies. This has most recently been seen in the latest Star Wars film Rogue One – A Star Wars story. Peter Cushing, the actor playing the role of Grand Moff Tarkin or Governor Tarkin in the original trilogy in 1977, was brought back, (despite having died in 1994) to play a major role in the film. Whilst the digital effects were not perfect, soon, an audience will not be able to tell the difference. In the movie “Forest Gump” a dead president shook hands with a living actor. The new technology has resulted in some actors taking steps to restrict the use of their likeness after their death. Robin Williams restricted the use of his image for instance after his death for 25 years.
View the following video clip (originally shown on ABC News) which looks at how the digital recreation of a number of actors was completed in Rogue One – A star Wars Story
At an Australian Effects and Animation Festival, a discussion was conducted with professional animators to decide if this practice was ethical.
If an actor had never given permission for their image to be used in this way, then it infringes their copyright and privacy
The cost and effort involved is not worth it
The manipulated performance may not be true to the actor’s real character or beliefs.
There is an attraction in being able to continue to enjoy the actors we love in new roles
Money can be made from even the briefest of advertisements
There is an artistic and technical satisfaction in being able to achieve it.
Rapid Prototyping is a relatively new technology in which quick fabrication of a scale model of a physical part or assembly is possible using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD). With Rapid Prototyping (also known as 3d printing) an object can be produced in a similar way to printing a word document or image. The only difference is that the picture is printed as a real object.
Each 3D-printed object begins with a digital Computer Aided Design (CAD) file, created with a 3D modeling program, or which was scanned into a 3D modeling program with a 3D scanner. To get from this digital file into instructions that the 3D printer understands, software then slices the design into hundred or thousands of horizontal layers.
The 3D printer reads this file, and proceeds to create each layer exactly to specification. As the layers are created, they blend together with no hint of the layering visible, resulting in one three dimensional object.
The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts. Today, they are used for a much wider range of applications and are even used to manufacture production-quality parts in relatively small numbers.
Applications for this technology
Printing in 3D can give Architects the ability to produce models quickly to show clients a realistic impression of their designs. Items such as jewellery and also be produced with this technique. In this instance, a design of a ring is first printed from CAD drawings in wax. A sand cast is made from this and then the precious metal is pored into this cast. Rapid prototyping has also been linked with with the medical industry for manufacture of replacement body parts such as teeth or bone parts.
Imagine being able to print parts and entire products, anywhere in the world. 3D printing will affect almost every aspect of industry and our personal lives.
Medicine will be changed forever as new bio-printers print human tissue for both pharmaceutical testing and eventually entire organs and bones.
Architecture and construction are changing as well. Now, 3D-printed models of complex architectural drawings are created quickly and inexpensively, rather than the expensive and time-consuming process of handcrafting models out of cardboard. And experimental, massive 3D printers are printing concrete structures, with the goal of someday building entire buildings with a 3D printer.
Art is already forever changed. Digital artists are creating magnificent pieces that seem almost impossible to have been made by traditional methods. From sculptures to light fixtures, beautiful objects no longer need to be handcrafted, just designed on a computer.
And there are developments where you least expect them: for example, archeologists can 3D scan priceless and delicate artifacts, and then print copies of them so they can handle them without fear of breakage. Replicas can be easily made and distributed to other research facilities or museums. It has been used to create a full-size reproduction of King Tutankhamun’s mummy and to repair Rodin’s sculpture, The Thinker.
There are a variety of very different types of 3D printing technologies, but they all share one core thing in common: they create a three dimensional object creating it layer by successive layer, until the entire object is complete.
Each of these layers is a thinly sliced, horizontal cross-section of the eventual object. Imagine a multi-layer cake, with the baker laying down each layer one at a time until the entire cake is formed. 3D printing is similar, but just a bit more precise than 3D baking.
The 3D printer could be a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printer, somewhat similar to current 2D inkjet printers but with an additional axis, which deposits droplets of melted material through a nozzle to form each layer. It could be a selective laser sintering (SLS) printer, where the object is built up in a bed of powdered material by a scanning laser beam that fuses bits of the powder together, again, one layer at a time. Or it could be one of several other technologies.
3D printing is also called “additive manufacturing,” using an “additive process.” This is as opposed to what is called a “subtractive process.” To explain the difference, imagine a sculptor chiseling a block of stone — he chips away until he has the sculpture just as he wants it, and then throws out what’s been whittled away. He began with block of material and then subtracted from it. This is a subtractive process. In the manufacturing world, this is analogous to material being cut, drilled, milled or machined off. But in additive manufacturing, the 3D printer doesn’t take anything away — it simply creates each bit of the object where it needs it, layer by layer, successively, in an additive process.
Commercial 3D printers
While most people have yet to even hear the term 3D printing, the process has been in use for decades. Manufacturers have long used the printers in the design process, to create prototypes for traditional manufacturing. But until the last few years, the equipment has been expensive and slow.
Now, fast 3D printers can be had for tens of thousands of dollars, and end up saving the companies many times that amount in the prototyping process. For example, Nike uses 3D printers to create multi-colored prototypes of shoes. They used to spend thousands of dollars on a prototype and wait weeks for it. Now, the cost is only in the hundreds of dollars, and changes can be made instantly on the computer and the prototype reprinted on the same day.
Some companies are using 3D printers for short run or custom manufacturing, where the printed objects are not prototypes, but the actual end user product. As the speeds of 3D printing go up and their price comes down, look for more and more of this. And expect more availability of personally customized products.
Personal 3D Printers
A Huxley RepRap 3D printer that has printed out its own parts.
So far we’ve only talked about commercial 3D printers. There is a whole other world of 3D printers: personal and DIY hobbyist models. And they are getting cheap, with prices typically in the range of $300 – $2,000.
The RepRap open source project really ignited this hobbyist market in the same way the Apple I microcomputer ignited the hobbyist desktop computer market in the late 1970s. For about a thousand dollars, people have been able to buy the RepRap kit and put together their own personal 3D printer, complete with any customizations they were capable of making. And what’s more, these printers print most of the parts for more printers. Complete self-replication, including electronic circuit boards, is the goal.
The interest in RepRap spawned scores of other low-cost 3D printers, both DIY and fully-assembled, and as the prices keep coming down, it puts 3D printers into more and more and more hands.
It is not necesary for you to be an engineer or a 3D modeling expert to create 3D models on your own 3D printer. While complex and expensive CAD software like AutoCAD and Solidworks have a steep learning curve, there are a number of other programs, many free, that are very easy to learn. The free version of Google SketchUp, for example, is very popular for its ease of use; and the free Blender program is popular for its advanced features.
If you don’t have your very own 3D printer, not to worry, there are 3D printing service bureaus like Shapeways and Ponoko that can very inexpensively print and deliver an object from a digital file that you simply upload to their user-friendly website. It’s almost as easy as ordering a custom t-shirt from Cafepress or Zazzle.
Even if you don’t design your own 3D model, you can still print some very cool pieces. There are model repositories such as Thingiverse, 3D Parts Database and 3D Warehouse that have model files you can download for free.
What do all these people print? It’s limitless. Some print things like jewelry, some print replacement parts for appliances such as their dishwasher, some invent all sorts of original things, some create art, and some make toys for their kids. With the many types of metal, plastic, glass and other materials available (even gold and silver), just about anything can be printed.
3D Printing Methods
The first commercially available 3D printer (not called a 3D printer back then) used the stereolithography (SLA) method. This was invented in 1986 by Charles Hull, who also at the time founded the company, 3D Systems. A SLA 3D printer works by concentrating a beam of ultraviolet light focused onto the surface of a vat filled with liquid photocurable photopolymer (resin). The UV laser beam draws out the 3D model one thin layer at a time, hardening that “slice” of the eventual 3D model as the light hits the resin. Slice after slice is created, with each one bonded to the other, and next thing you know you have a full, extremely high-resolution three dimensional model lifted out of the vat. Unused resin is reusable for the next job.
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Also invented in the late 1980′s, by Scott Crump, was Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. With patent in hand, he and his wife founded Stratasys in 1988. With FDM, the object is produced by extruding small beads of melted thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after it leaves the extrusion nozzle. It is one of the lesser expensive 3D printing methods. Most FDM printers print with ABS plastic (think Lego), as well as PLA (Polylactic acid), a biodegradable polymer, which is produced from organic material.
The actual term “Fused Deposition Modeling” and its abbreviation “FDM” are trademarked by Stratasys. RepRap uses a similar process, but has called it “Fused Filament Fabrication” (FFF), so as to not step on the trademark. With FFF, the material is fed via filament from a spool of the material.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
The 1980′s were big for inventing 3D printing technologies. Not only were SLA and FDM invented and patented then, but so was Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), by Carl Deckard and colleagues at the University of Texas in Austin. SLS works similarly to SLA, but instead of liquid photopolymer in a vat, you’ll find powered materials, such as polystyrene, ceramics, glass, nylon, and metals including steel, titanium, aluminum and silver. When the laser hits on the powder, it is fused at that point (sintered). All unsintered powder remains as is, and becomes a support structure for the object. The lack of necessity for any support structure with SLS is an advantage over SLS over SLA — none to remove after the model is complete, and no extra waste was created. All unused powder can be used for the next printing.
There are other variants of these technologies. For example there is Selective Laser Melting (SLM), which is like SLS but fully melts the power rather than just fusing the powder granules under lower temperature. This is similar to Electron Beam Melting (EBM) which is uses an electron beam instead of a UV laser. And then there is a completely different technology called Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), where layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter.
The Future of 3D Printing
This is a disruptive technology of mammoth proportions, with effects on energy use, waste, customization, product availability, art, medicine, construction, the sciences and of course manufacturing. It will change the world as we know it.
When a computer dies or has become obsolete, it can pollute the environment for a very long time. Computer equipment becomes obsolete very quickly. A computer will generally have a lifespan of only about 3 years. Each year, millions of old computers and peripherals which go with the computers are buried in landfill. They start to pollute the soil very soon as they contain hazardous wastes like lead.
There are recycling programmes which often will send disposed of computers overseas to countries where wages are low. In these countries, parts which have value are removed or stripped out.
The problem with recycling computers in this way is that we often simply move the pollution to another country in the world.
Much of the worlds electronic waist ends up in Asia due to lower labour costs. Much of the work of removing the wiring and separating the plastic from metal components such as circuit boards is done by hand.
Often, the plastic insulation wiring is removed by burning in low heat. This creates toxins which are released into the air and leaves ash which is filed with Dioxins.
The gaming industry is a multi billion dollar industry which employs hundreds of thousands of people world wide both directly and indirectly. Video games are frowned upon by parents and some education as time-wasters and worse. Playing violent video games are easily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some young people become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior. But others find that video games can actually have benefits. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills and hand eye coordination skills that they will need in the future. Some of the benefits attributed to gaming include:-
- Helping children to learn to following instructions
- Developing problem solving and logic skills
- Developing hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills.
- Planning, resource management and logistics skills.
- and developing skills in multitasking and tracking of many shifting variables.
Fr Roderick Vonhögen from Holland investigated some of the frequently asked questions often asked about the effects of gaming.
Video games are everywhere. And gamers are everywhere too. The video game industry is bigger than the music and movie industry together. But what impact do video games have on us? Parents, teachers and other educators often have important questions about video games. Do they make us more violent? Have they got an isolating effect on players? How much gaming-time is healthy? How should parents and educators talk with kids about video games when they don’t play games themselves? Are games superficial entertainment, or is there more to them? This documentary was made to answer those frequently asked questions. (http://www.trideo.com/gamefaq/)
Images are a media type displayed as visual information. They can be drawings, paintings or photographs. Images are used to create interest and provide information. Photographs and other types of graphical data are designed specifically for display. An image on a screen is made up of dots called pixels. A pixel is the smallest part of the screen that can be controlled by the computer or other device. The total number of pixels on a screen is called its resolution. (ie New iPad has Retina display, 2048 x 1536 resolution). An image can be represented in two different ways. Either a Bitmap or a Vector. Typical file formats for a bitmap can be JPEG, GIF, PNG and BMP. Vector images can be SVG, WMF and EMF.
Bitmap images treat each dot in an image separately. These dots or pixels can be different colours with each colour being represented as a binary number. Bitmaps produce good quality images where shading and detail are needed.
To calculate the uncompressed storage needed for a bitmap you will need to calculate the total number of pixels and multiply by the colour or bit depth. For example, if an image is 1200 by 800 pixels, the total number of pixels will be 960,000. If the bit depth is 24 then each pixel needs 3 bytes of storage therefore the total file size will be 960,000 X 3 =2,880,000. The size of this image in kilobytes will be 2,880,000 divided by 1024 = 2812.5 kB. Divide this by 1024 to convert to megabytes. The image would require 2.74MB of storage.
Bitmap images are often compressed to reduce their file size for storage. Some of these compression formats will not alter the image quality. This is called lossless compression however others will remove some parts of the image. This is known as lossy compression.
Vector images or graphics are made up of objects such as straight lines, curves or shapes. Each portion of the image is represented mathematically. Each object is defined by its characteristics such as positions, width of the lines and patterns. The total size of the data required to represent a vector image is usually less than that of an equivalent Bitmap image. Vector images can be resized to any required resolution without loosing clarity. They are generally unsuitable for photographic images.
Common vector graphics include Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), Windows Metafile (WMF) and Enhanced Metafile (EMF).
View the video below to get an overview of the differences between a Vector and Bitmap image.
A multimedia system is an information system that combines different types of media into interactive information systems. A multimedia system uses at least three media types. These being Text, Images, Animation, Audio and Video.
Multimedia systems include a significant amount of text. Text refers to letters, numbers and other characters separated by white space characters (non-printing characters). Text is the most common form in which information is presented. Often, the images, sound, video and other media within the system are there to reinforce the text content. Numbers are generally only used when the user performs a function such as navigating through a presentation. Often, when numbers are displayed on the screen, they are presented as text (eg four or three) rather than in numeric form. Text in a multimedia product is written using a word processor.
Images are pictures. They are media displayed as visual information. They can be drawings, paintings or photographs. Images are used to create interest and provide information. Photographs and other types of graphical data are designed specifically for display. An image on a screen is made up of dots called pixels. A pixel is the smallest part of the screen that can be controlled by the computer or other device. The total number of pixels on a screen is called its resolution. (ie New iPad has Retina display, 2048 x 1536 resolution). An image can be represented in two different ways. Either a Bitmap or a Vector. Typical file formats for a bitmap can be JPEG, GIF, PNG and BMP. Vector images can be SVG, WMF and EMF.