Case Study – Space Invaders
Space Invaders is one of the earliest successful shooting games. Space Invaders is a two-dimensional fixed shooter game in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it horizontally across the bottom of the screen and firing at aliens. The aim is to defeat five rows of eleven aliens—some versions feature different numbers—that move horizontally back and forth across the screen as they advance towards the bottom of the screen. The player defeats an alien, and earns points, by shooting it with the laser cannon. As more aliens are defeated, the aliens’ movement and the game’s music both speed up. Defeating the aliens brings another wave that is more difficult, a loop which can continue without end. The aliens attempt to destroy the cannon by firing at it while they approach the bottom of the screen. If they reach the bottom, the alien invasion is successful and the game ends. A special “mystery ship” will occasionally move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed. The laser cannon is partially protected by several stationary defense bunkers—the number varies by version—that are gradually destroyed by projectiles from the aliens and player. It was developed by video game developer Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978 in Japan. It was originally manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and was later licensed for production in the U.S by Bally. In designing the game, Nishikado drew inspiration from popular media such as The War of the Worlds and Star Wars. To complete it, he had to design custom hardware and development tools.
It was one of the forerunners of modern video gaming and helped expand the video game industry to a global industry. When first released, Space Invaders was enormously successful. It is rumored that it was so successful in Japan that it lead to a shortage of 100 Yen coin used to play it.
The game has been the inspiration for other video games, re-released on numerous platforms, and led to several sequels. The 1980 Atari 2600 version quadrupled the system’s sales and became one of the most successful games for the video game console. Space Invaders has been referenced in many television shows, and been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions. The pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon, often used to represent video games as a whole.